A Summary of Paul’s Use of the OT in Galatians 3:10–14

If Galatians were summarized in a sentence, it could be this: justification is by faith alone and not by doing the works of the law (Gal 2:16; cf. 2:16–21). Supporting this truth in Galatians 3:10–14, Paul quotes the OT numerous times.

First, in Gal 3:10, Paul quotes Deut 27:26 and adds wording from Deut 28:58 as well. His point here is that, rather than finding justification, those who rely on the works of the law will actually find themselves cursed with death for failing to perfectly obey the law. Paul assumes here a truth so obvious that it does not even need stating—that, due to sin, it is impossible for anyone to perfectly obey the law (cf. 1 Kgs 8:46; Prov 20:9; Ecc 7:20). So, anyone who attempts to do the law in order to be justified actually ends up under the curse of death.

Second, in Gal 3:11, Paul quotes Hab 2:4. His point here is to again show that doing the law does not justify anyone. The quote positively shows that those who are righteous will live (eternally) by faith. The quote negatively implies that the law has no role to play in being justified before God because it says nothing about the matter and has already positively affirmed the role of faith. So, it is clear that no one is justified before God by the law.

Third, in Gal 3:12, Paul quotes Lev 18:5. His point is to show that the law grants life (theoretically) by simply doing it. Faith is not even mentioned. But again, here we assume that doing the law perfectly is impossible due to sin, which means that no one can ever attain eternal life thereby.

Fourth, in Gal 3:13, Paul quotes Deut 21:23. His point here is to show how Jesus became a curse for us so that He could die for our sins on our behalf. After an execution for some heinous sin, the body of the punished would sometimes be hung upon a tree as a public display of what happened to those who sinned in such a way (see Deut 21:22–23). While not yet dead, Jesus hung on the cross and then died on it, and the OT text could be applied to Him as well. He did nothing to deserve this curse and punishment, and what He suffered, He suffered for us.

There is obviously more to Gal 3:10–14 than what is said above, but we have at least seen that (1) all are under the curse of death, (2) righteousness comes by faith, (3) no one can do the law perfectly, and (4) Jesus took the curse of death upon Himself for us when He died on the cross. Praise God for a wonderful Savior!


Genesis 12:3 + 15:6 + 18:18 = Justification by Faith for All

In Galatians 3:6–9, Paul supports the truth that God declares one righteous by faith alone by quoting three passages, Genesis 12:3, 15:6, and 18:18.

The first quotation supports the truth that righteousness comes to all by faith alone by holding up Abraham as the paradigmatic example of this truth. Quoting Gen 15:6, Gal 3:6 states, “Abraham ‘believed God, and it was counted to him as righteousness.’”

Paul used this quote to claim “that it is those of faith who are the sons of Abraham” (Gal 3:7), that is, that anyone who believes is declared righteous by God and truly one of Abraham’s sons. The title “sons of Abraham” was likely used by Jews who claimed that obeying the Mosaic Law was necessary for one to be declared righteous before God. Just as the Law came from those who were the sons of Abraham, so also, they thought, must one obey the Law in order to be a son of Abraham and thus receive the blessing that was first promised to him (cf. Gen 12:3). However, Paul corrected this thinking by basing one’s claim to this title on believing (faith), not doing. Abraham did nothing for God to declare him righteous. He simply believed. (And, the law had not even come yet!)

The second quotation supports the truth that righteousness comes to all by faith alone by noting faith as the means whereby God’s promise of blessing to Abraham is extended to the Gentiles. Conflating Gen 12:3 with Gen 18:18, Gal 3:8 states, “And the Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached the gospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, ‘In you shall all the nations be blessed.’” The original Hebrew of Gen 12:3 technically promises blessing through Abraham to all “families” or “tribes,” but Gen 18:18 (and Paul) gives the sense of these recipients by stating that “all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in” Abraham.

In one sense, the promise of blessing is extended through Abraham (“in you”) to all who have redemption in Christ Jesus, the greatest Descendant of Abraham (Gal 3:14). Closer to home for Gal 3:8 is Gal 3:9, which states as well that it is “those who are of faith” who “are blessed along with Abraham.” So, we could say that we are blessed “in Abraham” through his Descendant Christ Jesus and also by receiving this blessing through the same faith that Abraham exercised so long ago.

As Abraham simply believed and was declared righteous by God, so also it is true that we only need to believe to be declared righteous as well. And this faith is the means whereby God’s blessing of being declared righteous by Him comes to us as Gentiles who make up the nations of the earth.


The Old Testament in the Book of Revelation (Revelation 18:21–24)

This entry is part 49 of 49 in the series Revelation and Its Connections to the OT


Passage Summary

A mighty angel threw a millstone-sized stone into the sea, picturing the sudden, violent, and permanent downfall of Babylon (18:21). Music, work, light, and marriage will be absent as a result (18:22–23a). Reasons for her destruction will be her deceptive and demonic influence upon the world through her merchants and her persecution of the saints (18:23b–24).

Old Testament in the New

Revelation Old Testament Connection Between the Two
18:21 Jer 51:63–64 A stone is thrown into water, picturing how Babylon would be judged by God.
18:22 Isa 24:8; Jer 25:10; Ezek 26:13 Musicians cease playing, and workers cease working when judgment comes in the end.
18:23 Jer 7:34; 16:9; 25:10 Complete judgment silences the voices of gladness in a city and extinguishes its light.

A Parting Thought

From the simplest to the greatest of joys in life to the life-sustaining and simplest necessities of life, Babylon will be absolutely overthrown. Let us never come close to Babylon’s sins by even tolerating them in any way, and let us rather look for our blessed hope in the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.


How Do I Know I’m Justified? Five Answers from Galatians 3:1–5

After an introduction to his letter (Gal 1:1–5), rebuke of the Galatians for going astray (Gal 1:6–10), and a defense of his apostleship and the gospel’s divine origin (Gal 1:11–2:14), Paul directly addressed his letter’s primary burden, to steer his readers away from seeking justification by works and back to knowing they are justified by faith alone, that is, that they had been declared righteous by God through their faith on the basis of the righteousness of Jesus Christ (see Gal 2:15–21, esp. 2:16). In Galatians 3:1–5, he gave a series of rhetorical questions to emphatically assert in various ways that the readers really did know that justification was by faith alone. I will state each of these assertions in my own way for us today below. So, if Paul were to ask you how you would know you have been justified, here are some answers you could give today.

First, you can know that you are justified because you believe the gospel. For the Galatians, Paul stated, “It was before your eyes that Jesus Christ was publicly portrayed as crucified” (Gal 3:1). “Publicly portrayed” has the idea of something like a placard with writing being held up before their eyes. What Paul meant was that, while in Galatia, he vividly preached the death of Christ along with its significance so that it was as if they had seen His crucifixion for themselves. When confronted with a false gospel of being justified by works, they should have known better than to have been led astray. Instead, they should have remembered the message preached by Paul and what they had first believed. Jesus lived a perfect life. He died a sinless death. And we must believe in Him in order to be united to Him and have His death and righteousness be our own. Otherwise, He will never live in us so that we might live to God. If your faith is in this gospel, you can know that you are justified through your faith.

Second, you can know that you are justified because you received the Spirit. Paul asked the Galatians, “Did you receive the Spirit…by hearing with faith?” (Gal 3:2). The answer is an obvious yes. The Spirit is given to those who hear and believe. Perhaps a helpful follow-up question is to ask, How can I know I received the Spirit? One answer could be that you know the Spirit lives in you now. As you live a life led by the Spirit according to the Word of God, the Spirit communicates to your spirit the assurance that you are indeed a son of God (see Rom 8:14–17). If you have the Spirit now, then you received the Spirit previously, and you received the Spirit when you first believed. And, if you have received the Spirit, you know that you have been justified and need to do nothing else for your justification.

Third, you can know that you are justified because you continue live by the Spirit. Paul asked the Galatians, “Having begun by the Spirit, are you now being perfected by the flesh?” (Gal 3:3). The implied assertion in this question is that what is begun by the Spirit in salvation is continued by the Spirit in our sanctification, giving evidence of our justification. If we think that our initial faith in Christ and continued life in the Spirit must be set aside in order for us to gain or maintain justification by our own works done apart from the Spirit, then we fall prey to a false gospel. However, if you have received the Spirit by faith and continue to live in the Spirit by faith, then you can know that you have been justified and will one day stand before God complete (cf. Phil 1:6).

Fourth, you can know that you are justified because you have suffered for the gospel. Paul asked the Galatians, “Did you suffer so many things in vain?” (Gal 3:4). Were they to abandon the gospel, they would be abandoning a gospel for which they had previously suffered (cf. Acts 13:50; 14:5, 19; Gal 4:29). Turning to a works-based false gospel, they would be saying that their past suffering was for nothing because it was for a gospel based on faith alone. However, they had believed it enough to suffer for it, showing that they indeed believed it. So why turn away now? When we believe in being justified through the work of Christ and not our own works, and when we are willing to suffer for our belief in this message, we can know that we are justified.

Fifth and last, you can know that you are justified because you see the Spirit at work in your life. Speaking of the Father, Paul asked, “Does he who supplies the Spirit to you and works miracles among you do so by works of the law, or by hearing with faith?” (Gal 3:5). While I do not personally believe that we should expect to see miracles at work in our churches today as an evidence of our faith, it could be said that it is a miracle when God supplies the Spirit and thereby transforms sinners into saints who serve one another for the glory of God. This work of the Spirit comes by hearing with faith, and when we see it in our lives and others who believe the gospel, we can know that we are justified.

Believe the gospel. Live and believe as you ought in order to know the Spirit lives within you, and do so not in your own power but by the Spirit through faith. Suffer for the gospel if necessary. See the Spirit’s work in your life. In these ways, you can know that you have been declared righteous by God.

The Old Testament in the Book of Revelation (Revelation 18:9–20)

This entry is part 48 of 49 in the series Revelation and Its Connections to the OT

Passage Summary

Having witnessed the destruction of Babylon, three groups lament her judgment. First, the kings who sinned with her stand at a distance, fearing that they, too, will share her judgment, lamenting over the sudden destruction of such a great and mighty city (18:9–10). Second, the merchants of materials and men likewise stand at a distance, lamenting her sudden destruction and longing for her now-gone luxuries of food and clothing (18:11–17a). Third, the shipmasters and their sailors stand at a distance and lament her sudden destruction, mourning over their loss of wealth as well (18:18–19). Ironically, they exhort heaven with its saints and apostles to rejoice that the blood of the martyrs has seen justice (18:20).

Old Testament in the New

Revelation Old Testament Connection Between the Two
18:9 Jer 50:46; 51:8 Babylon will be suddenly broken and mourned by the nations.
18:9–10, 12, 16, 17–19 Ezek 26:16–18; 27:12–33 Both ancient Tyre and future Babylon are judged in similar ways.
18:20 Jer 51:48 Heaven will rejoice when Babylon is judged.

 A Parting Thought

The greatest center of wealth and stockpile of this world’s earthly goods is no match for an almighty God who owns everything already. May we trust in Him and not our earthly riches, lest we be found mourning for what passes away in the day of judgment.


Galatians 2:15–21: If We Were to Paraphrase Paul

As a follow up to last week’s post, here is my attempt at a paraphrase of Paul from Galatians 2:15-21.

Though we are Jews and not Gentile sinners (2:15), even we know that justification is not by works of the law but by faith in Christ Jesus (2:16).

But if we seek justification through faith in Christ, does Christ become a servant of sin by justifying us apart from the Law? Of course not (2:17). Actually, I myself am the sinner if I return to the law (2:18).

In fact, it was through the law that I realized I could not fulfill the law’s demands but had to pay its penalty of death and find justification some other way. So, you could say that I died through the law to the law, and the law was intended to teach me this very thing (2:19a; cf. 3:19–25). I had to die to the law in order to live to God (2:19b).

In fact, thanks to my sin, I failed to live according to the law and realized that I could not fulfill its demands and therefore had to die as punishment for my failure. This realization was actually a purpose of the law (cf. 3:19–25). In being united to Christ, I was united to Him who undeservedly died according to the law’s penalty for sin. So, you could say that I died through the law, to the law (2:19).

As to how my penalty was paid, I was crucified with Christ (2:20a). The “old me” who was under the power of sin is no longer alive, and who I am now in this body is so fundamentally different that you could say it is Christ who lives in me (2:20b). This kind of life is possible because of my faith in the Son of God, which is compelled by how He lovingly sacrificed Himself for me (2:20c).

Having clarified the role of the law, I do not nullify the grace of God by saying it is not necessary for my justification. If I say that righteousness can be found through obeying the law, then I effectively claim Christ to have died for no purpose (2:21).

Justification by Faith Alone in Jesus Christ in Galatians 2:15–21

As Providence would have it, I’ll be preaching through Galatians 2:16–21 for a couple of Sundays this month on the doorstep of the 500th anniversary of the Protestant Reformation. So, to the glory of God, and in honor of the Reformation, I’ll do my best to work through this passage for a couple of weeks and uphold the great gospel doctrine that we are justified by faith alone.

In leading up to this passage, Paul has given an introduction (1:1–5) and a strong rebuke to the Galatians for so quickly running to a false gospel (1:6–10), namely, that one’s righteousness before God depends upon one’s adherence to the Mosaic law, or more generally, what one himself does rather than what Christ has done for him. In responding to this problem, Paul explained that his gospel came from Christ (Gal 1:11–17) and not from Peter, the apostles, or anyone in Jerusalem or Judea (Gal 1:18–2:14). This explanation builds up to Gal 2:15–21, which seems to be the rest of what Paul said to Peter in Antioch in Gal 2:14 (cf. Gal 2:11–14) and rehearsed here for the sake of upholding the gospel to the Galatians.

Here, then, in 2:15–21 is more or less the heart of the letter to the Galatians. Many important concepts are introduced or brought to a head in such a way that Paul can develop them further in the rest of his letter. And if Paul said nothing else to the Galatians, he could have left them with Galatians 2:16 to solve their doctrinal dilemma: “yet we know that a person is not justified by works of the law but through faith in Jesus Christ, so we also have believed in Christ Jesus, in order to be justified by faith in Christ and not by works of the law, because by works of the law no one will be justified.”

But rather than just leaving that tremendous statement as it is, let’s look at the whole passage and see it for all its glory.

The Heart of the Message: Justification by Faith in Christ (2:15–16)

Our passage comes off the heels of Paul telling Peter he was wrong to withdraw from eating with the Gentiles (Gal 2:11–14). Peter’s problem was to imply through his behavior that the Gentiles needed to add obedience to the Mosaic law to their faith in Christ in order to be seen as righteous before God. In clarifying the matter further, Paul pointed out to Peter that even their privileged ethnicity as Jews in receiving the law did not make the law effective in bringing about their justification: “We ourselves are Jews by birth and not Gentile sinners, yet we know yet we know that a person is not justified by works of the law but through faith in Jesus Christ, so we also have believed in Christ Jesus, in order to be justified by faith in Christ and not by works of the law, because by works of the law no one will be justified.”

To be justified is to be declared by God as righteous, and the works of the law are not works produced by the law but works done in obedience to the law. And while we know that Jesus was perfectly faithful in His obedience to the law, “faith in Jesus Christ” is just that—the believer’s faith in Him and should not be translated as “the faithfulness of Jesus Christ.” The difference between the two options would be that our own faith is left unmentioned in the matter of justification if we speak only of the righteousness of Christ, not to mention we would be speaking of Christ in way that would be altogether unique in the NT.

Our faith in Jesus Christ is to have faith in who He is and what He has done for us. Not only did He as both God and man live perfectly according to the law, but He also suffered its penalty of death that you and I deserve. To believe, trust, and have faith in Him is to believe in a number of truths: (1) we have violated God’s law and stand condemned before Him; (2) Jesus lived out the law sinlessly and perfectly and merited a righteousness that we could never gain for ourselves; (3) Jesus died an undeserved death on our behalf and was vindicated as sinless at His resurrection (cf. 1 Tim 3:16); (4) His death and righteousness are our own when we believe in Him.

So, in putting these things together, our faith in Christ unites us to Christ and His righteousness becomes our own. The Father obviously approved of His Son when He raised Him from the dead, and we are thus approved and declared righteous by virtue of our standing in Christ. What a truth! 

The Hindrance to the Message: The Sin of Adding the Law to the Gospel (2:17–18)

But there was a problem for the Jews struggling through the implications of this message. They had lived (imperfectly) according to the law for 1,500 years up to this point and found it hard to let it go. In fact, they were gripping to the law so hard that they may have actually accused Christ of being the servant of sin by justifying Jews apart from the law (2:18). That would make Jews sinners (2:17) in just the same way as Gentiles (cf. 2:15).

Paul says it like this: “But if, in our endeavor to be justified in Christ, we too were found to be sinners, is Christ then a servant of sin? Certainly not!” (2:17). In other words, if, while seeking to be justified in Christ, they were found out by others to be sinners just like the Gentiles, does Jesus then become a servant of sin by justifying apart from the law, a supposedly most egregious sin indeed? Obviously not (2:17).

To clarify, it is not that they are denounced as supposed sinners after conversion for having set the law aside. They accept that they are actual sinners before their conversion and claim as much by seeing themselves just as hopeless as Gentiles when it comes to having a right standing before God. The law is no good, only the righteousness of Christ will do, and trusting in anything else results in something less than God’s approval.

So, when it comes to accusing someone to be a sinner, it’s the other way around. It is not Christ who has sinned in setting the law aside. Rather, the one who has found justification though faith in Christ will become the sinner by adding the law to his faith when only faith was necessary at the beginning of salvation. Paul states, “For if I rebuild what I tore down, I prove myself to be a transgressor” (Gal 2:18).

Paul is not a transgressor for having torn down the law. Neither is the idea in this particular setting that he would again be shown a transgressor by once again failing to live up to the demands of the law, true as that would be. Rather, the idea here is that the law was torn down when Paul believed in Christ, and to build it up again would make him a transgressor by effectively denying the righteousness of Christ, which is quite the opposite of calling Christ the servant of sin for setting the law aside.

The Help to the Message: The Role of the Law in Leading to Life (2:19–20)

Before we throw out the law altogether when it comes to justification, we must remember that the law is not useless. After all, is it good when used in a lawful way (cf. 1 Tim 1:8–11). When someone attempts to live according to the law, his sin will show him time and again that he cannot live according to its demands and must suffer its penalty of death. Coming to this realization is actually one of the good purposes of the law. It shows one just how much he cannot attain his own righteousness by keeping the law because he can never perfectly keep it (cf. Gal 3:19–25). In this way he dies to the law, through the law, and is led to live to God in another way (Gal 2:19). Or, as Paul put it, “For through the law I died to the law, so that I might live to God” (Gal 2:19). That other way is justification by faith in Jesus Christ.

Remember that Christ lived out the law perfectly under the era of the law. And remember that He died the lawbreaker’s penalty of death without ever having broken the law. And remember that faith unites us to Christ. So, when we believe, we are united to Christ in His death, and thus we can say with Paul, “I have been crucified with Christ” (Gal 2:20). And it is who we were under sin as exacerbated by the law that died with Him at the cross.

Moreover, our union with Him is to be united to Him in life, so much so that we could even say again with Paul, “It is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me” (Gal 2:20). Even now, while in our physical bodies, we can have be justified by faith in Jesus Christ: “the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God” (Gal 2:20).

And for those who have faith, we are compelled to love the Savior all the more because it is He “who loved me and gave himself for me” (Gal 2:20).

The Hope of the Message: Righteousness through the Death of Christ (2:21)

Having said the above, we can claim that is actually us who do not deny God’s grace in salvation because we are not seeking God’s declaration of righteousness by living according to the law (cf. Gal 5:4). Were we to try such a thing, we would effectively dismiss the purpose of the death of Christ—to sinlessly die the sinner’s death so that all might live through Him (2:21). As Paul stated, “I do not nullify the grace of God, for if righteousness were through the law, then Christ died for no purpose” (Gal 2:21).

Parting Words

The Jews’ struggle then is the struggle that so many in our world have today—“Let me do something to gain God’s approval when I one day stand before Him.” For the Jew, they attempted God’s approval through the law. For people today, the principle is the same—doing good works and finding false assurance in what we have done instead of the work of Christ on the cross. May we find our justification by faith in Jesus Christ alone, and may we always see the best of our works for what they are—something infinitely less than the work the Christ did for us on the cross.


When Did Paul Confront Peter in Antioch?

In previous studies, we matched the events of Galatians 1–2 to the book of Acts and concluded the following: Paul’s conversion and subsequent missionary endeavors are recorded in Acts 9:1–25 and Gal 1:11–17 (cf. 2 Cor 11:32–33); Paul’s first visit to Jerusalem after his conversion and departure to the Gentiles are recorded in Acts 9:26–30 and Gal 1:18–24 (cf. Acts 22:17–21); and Paul’s second visit to Jerusalem is recorded in Acts 11:27–30 and Gal 2:1–10.

After describing his first and second meetings with Peter and others (Gal 1:18–21; 2:1–10), Paul recounted one more episode involving Peter in order to demonstrate that Peter was not the source of his gospel. In Gal 2:11–14, Paul confronted Peter in Syrian Antioch because Peter’s “conduct was not in step with the truth of the gospel” that he had previously affirmed (Gal 2:14; cf. 1:18–2:10).

If “then” (Gal 1:18, 21; 2:1) and “when” (Gal 2:11) lay out for us a chronological series of events, Gal 2:11–14 occurred after Gal 2:1–10, which means that Gal 2:11–14 occurred sometime after Acts 11:27–30. And, if Galatians was written before Acts 15, our window for confrontation is somewhere in Acts 12–14.

Peter was imprisoned in Acts 12, released, and “went to another place” (Acts 12:17; cf. 12:1–17). Paul was in Antioch in Acts 13:1–3 before his missionary journey in Acts 13:4–14:25 and returned to Antioch to report about his journey in Acts 14:25–28. Peter could have visited Paul in either Acts 13:1–3 or 14:24–28 or even sometime between Acts 14:24–28 and the Jerusalem Council of Acts 15.

As to the last of these options, Luke records, “But some men came down from Judea and were teaching the brothers, ‘Unless you are circumcised according to the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved’” (Acts 15:1 ESV).

“Some men” in Acts 15:1 are not the “certain men” who “came from James” in Gal 2:12 because James held to the same gospel as Paul (cf. Gal 1:19; 2:9; 1 Cor 15:7, 11). If anything, based upon Peter’s agreement with Paul in the Jerusalem Council (Acts 15:7–11), we could conclude that Peter responded positively to Paul’s rebuke (cf. Gal 2:11–14) and headed back to Jerusalem. “Some men” then “came down from Judea” to respond with their false gospel in light of what they heard about the matter (Acts 15:1). Then, “Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and debate with them” (Acts 15:2), and Paul sent his letter to the Galatians at this time, having heard that they were experiencing this same debate. Then Paul went with Barnabas “up to Jerusalem…about this question” to settle the matter once and for all (Acts 15:2 ESV).

While we obviously cannot be certain about this timeline, it gives a possible explanation for how to coordinate and match the timing and events between Galatians and Acts.

Wrapping up what seems to have turned into a mini-series on matching the events in Galatians 1–2 to the book of Acts, here is a snapshot of conclusions that were made with tentative dates:

AD 34–37: Acts 9:3–25 = Gal 1:11–17

AD 37–45: Acts 9:26–30 = Gal 1:18–24

AD 45: Acts 11:27–30 = Gal 2:1–10

AD 46–47: Acts 13:1–14:28 – Galatian churches planted

AD 47: Gal 2:11–14 – Paul confronts Paul in Syrian Antioch

AD 47: Acts 15:1–2a – Judeans arrive, debate follows, Galatians written

AD 48: Acts 15:2b – Paul and Barnabas head to the Jerusalem Council


The Old Testament in the Book of Revelation (Revelation 18:4–8)

This entry is part 47 of 49 in the series Revelation and Its Connections to the OT

Passage Summary

John heard another angel calling the people of God to abandon Babylon in order to avoid a share in her judgment (18:4). She exhausted God’s patience with her sins, and He recalls them all at this time (18:5). Her judgment would be in proportion to her sins (18:6). Her self-glorification would be repaid with torment and mourning, her luxury with famine, and her avoidance of widowhood with death (18:7–8). These judgments and fire will suddenly consume Babylon and show the Lord God’s might (18:8).

Old Testament in the New

Revelation Old Testament Connection Between the Two
18:4 Isa 52:11; Jer 50:8; 51:6, 45 God’s people are commanded to flee the place of judgment.
18:5 Jer 51:9 Babylon’s sins are so many they have reached heaven, provoking her judgment.
18:6 Ps 137:8; Jer 50:15, 29 Judgment would be given in proportion to Babylon’s sins.
18:7 Isa 47:7–9; Zeph 2:15 Judgment comes upon the one who avoided suffering and engaged in sin.
18:8 Isa 47:9; Jer 50:31-32 Sudden judgment with fire would consume the one who sinned.

 A Parting Thought

We are not gods who are entitled to live arrogantly and lavishly while others suffer at our expense. If we were ever to find ourselves part of a group of people that promotes such a life, we must pull away, knowing that God will judge them. Rather, may we be humble and generous, shouldering and sharing whatever burdens come our way.


Where Does Galatians 2:1–10 Fit in Acts?

Many equate Paul’s description of his meeting with Peter, James, and John in Galatians 2:1–10 with the Jerusalem Council in Acts 15:1–29. Both meetings were provoked by Judaizers (Acts 15:1, 24; Gal 1:7, 22; 6:17), attended by Paul and Barnabas (Acts 15:2; Gal 2:1), and concerned with whether or not Gentiles must be circumcised and keep the Mosaic Law in order to be saved (Acts 15:1; cf. 15:5). And, in both passages, the outcome was to deny that neither circumcision nor keeping the Law were necessary for salvation (15:10; Gal 2:6)—salvation was by faith (Acts 15:9; Gal 2:16). Fellowship with saved Gentiles was formally recognized (Acts 15:23; Gal 2:9).

Though this equation is a very tempting option, it is possible Gal 2:1–10 refers to a meeting distinct from the one in Acts 15. Paul does not mention the letter from the Jerusalem church to the Galatians (see Acts 15:23–29), and Paul clarifies that his meeting in Gal 2:1–10 was private (see Gal 2:2), unlike the public nature of the meeting in Acts 15 (see Acts 15:6, 12, 22). It is not surprising that a meeting like this happened more than once in the early church. An ongoing theme in Acts and beyond in the NT was how believers worked through the practical differences of the Law-free Gentiles and Law-abiding Jews (see, e.g., Rom 14:1–15:7).

A plausible parallel to Gal 2:1–10 may be found in Acts 11:27–30. As we have seen, Acts 9:3–30 may be matched to Gal 1:11–24, and it works in the timeline of Acts to match Galatians 2:1–10 to Acts 11:27–30 as well. As in Galatians 2, this visit in Acts involved Paul and Barnabas (Acts 11:30; Gal 2:1). Also, we could identify the request to Paul and Barnabas to remember the poor (Gal 2:10) as their giving help to those who were suffering famine (Acts 11:29–30), the very thing they were eager to do. We could even further identify the revelation that prompted Paul to go to Jerusalem (Gal 2:2) as the one given to Agabus who predicted the famine (Acts 11:28). Moreover, Paul told the Galatians that the result of his meeting was “so that the truth of the gospel might be preserved for you” (Gal 2:5), which could mean that, looking back at how things unfolded, the gospel was faithfully upheld and came their way in Acts 13–14.1

If Gal 2:1–10 can be matched with Acts 11:27–30, what Luke does not tell us, however, is about the meeting that transpired between Paul and Barnabas and Peter, James, and John. Neither does he mention Titus. (Actually, he never mentions Titus.) But each writer has his own purposes, faithfully giving us the details necessary for each purpose, and comparing Scripture to Scripture helps us to answer questions that might leave us guessing if we had only one text or another.

  1. See Douglas J. Moo, Galatians (BECNT; Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2013), 118–30, and Thomas R. Schreiner, Galatians (ZENCT; Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2010), 115–31. []